It is not clear when the judge will rule. See United States v. Evans, 159 F.3d 908 (4th Cir. United States Sentencing Guideline § 5G1.3, amended after Setser, requires  the court to impose a concurrent federal term if the anticipated state sentence is relevant conduct to the federal sentence—although the federal guidelines are, of course, ultimately advisory. First, the state conditions of pretrial release could be modified to something the defendant can satisfy, or the state charges could be dismissed and then recharged. A convicted Defendant or a Defendant who has pleaded guilty and is being sentenced under multiple charges can have the sentences be served concurrently or consecutively. Thus, Sharpe is really seeking to modify his state sentence on the ground that it should (or should have) run concurrently with his federal sentence. the state sentence to run concurrently with the already imposed federal sentence. § 3568, when the state had primary jurisdiction, an order by the federal sentencing judge to run the federal sentence concurrently with a state sentence (even one yet to be imposed) was treated by the Bureau of Prisons as a recommendation since the federal sentencing court had no power to order a federal sentence to run concurrently with a state sentence. One year later, the defendant pleads guilty and receives a new sentence to run concurrent to the FED sentence. (On the complexities involved in concurrent federal and state prison sentences, unnecessary to address in this case, see Romandine v. United States, 206 F.3d 731, 737-39 (7th Cir. When sentences run concurrently, defendants serve all the sentences at the same time. Here’s a typical fact pattern. Setser pleaded guilty to the federal crime, and the court imposed a sentence of 151 months’ imprisonment, with that sentence to run concurrently with any later-imposed state sentence for the same instance of drug possession, but consecutively to any … The issue of whether a Federal judge can impose a sentence to be served consecutive to an unimposed State sentence was recently ruled on by the United States Supreme Court in Setser v. The government argued that the court did not have the power or discretion to impose a sentence concurrent with the state s en-tence, and that the sentences should be consecutive in any event. Federal sentence may be consecutive or concurrent to state term. 15A-1354(a). United States v. Lynn, 912 F.3d 212 (4th Cir. The general rule is that the sovereign that first arrests a defendant has primary custodial jurisdiction over him or her, unless and until that sovereign releases the defendant by way of bail, dismissal, or completion of its sentence. When he returns to handle his state charges, you might figure that the state judge could, under G.S. (Added Pub. That is a matter for Pennsylvania authorities, not the federal courts.” See: United States v. whether the discharged state term of imprisonment can result in downward departure in federal court (See USSG 5G1.3, note 5; USSG 5K2.23; US v. Shows; US v. Rosado), I was sentenced to two 20 years sentences..the first one in the order stated it will run concurrently and the second stated consecutively..tdc ran them concurrently for 8 years then stacked them .they were both tried on same day..is this legal. 2. Concurrent federal sentence may begin on date it is imposed (September 3, 2000), but not earlier. A Federal judge can also order that a federal sentence run concurrent to a state court sentence, even one that has yet to be imposed. Ifstate and federal sentences are imposed on an offender, the general rule is that the sentence imposed by the sovereign with primaryjurisdiction is served first. The authority for the federal judge to impose a federal sentence concurrent with or consecutive to an anticipated sentence is clearer now than it once was. He is brought to federal court on a writ of habeas corpus ad prosequendum, and convicted and sentenced in federal court. Federal law is similar, but not identical. ; In this section, you will find the Commission’s comprehensive archive of yearly amendments and Guidelines Manuals dating back to … (*��y�V��@�A�1Zi/f!�׌݌Gk1.d,d�u��6(������W����������5��>�Q� q�� Both were convicted of various counts, including bank fraud and money laundering. Multiple terms imposed at the same time run concurrently unless the judge or a statute requires otherwise, while terms imposed at different times run consecutively unless the court orders them to run concurrently. Generally, decisions concern - ing concurrent or consecutive service of a federal sentence with a state sentence are not dependent on the order of sentence imposition.30If the federal Judgment and Commitment Order is silent and if the state authorities have primary jurisdiction over the defendant, the default by the BOP is to compute the federal sentence as con - secutive with the state sentence … Thank you very much. The Federal District Court imposed a 151-month sentence to run consecutively to any state sentence imposed for the probation violation, but concurrently with any state sentence … Forgiveness vs. reduction. 118 0 obj <> endobj There is a detailed memo on Interaction of State and Federal Sentences… 2018) (a case involving a defendants request to have BOP designate an Oklahoma state prison as the place of confinement for his federal sentence).). There are a few traps for the unwary, even when everyone (prosecutor, defendant, and judge) agrees on how the sentences will be served relative to one another.When a person faces two or more state sentences imposed at different times, the judge imposing the later sentence decides whether it runs concurrently with or consecutively to the previously imposed sentence. Producing a defendant for prosecution on a writ of habeas corpus ad prosequendum does not, standing alone, relinquish the first sovereign’s custody. endstream endobj 119 0 obj <>/Metadata 17 0 R/Pages 116 0 R/StructTreeRoot 30 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 120 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 116 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 121 0 obj <>stream Under 18 U.S.C. 1There are two important aspects to this section:(1) The court must, ‘by order, direct when each federal sentence commences’: Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) s 19(1), (2) and (3). § 3584, when a defendant is facing multiple terms of imprisonment—either for multiple crimes being sentenced at the same time or for a defendant already subject to an undischarged term of imprisonment—the terms may run consecutively or concurrently. 2000.) When the sentences are served concurrently, the Defendant will get credit on all his sentences at the same time. Sharpe’s federal sentence has expired and he is now serving a state-court sentence. L. 98–473, title II, § 212 (a) (2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. His plea agreement in state court provided that he would re­ceive a term con­current with his federal sentence. If a judgment does not specify consecutive sentences, DACJJ will run them concurrently. (If that designation isn’t made initially, the defendant has some prospect of petitioning BOP to do it later, nunc pro tunc to the date on which the federal sentence was imposed. The defendant only has 4 months remaining on the state sentence. While the state cases were still pending, the district court ordered the federal sentence to run consecutive to any sentence that might be imposed for revocation of probation but concurrent with any sentence arising out of the new state charge. Usual rule - No prior custody credit on federal sentence for time credited towards state sentence. When the guidelines are amended, a subsequent Guidelines Manual is published. Please write a follow-up, discussing some more of the “wrinkles”. A few statutes require new sentences to run consecutively to time already being served (for example habitual felon, habitual breaking and entering, and drug trafficking), but aside from those, the decision rests in the discretion of the judge conducting the later sentencing. State sentence is primary. 5. My dad was sentenced in the state to 10yrs was later indicted on federal charges when he was sentenced his lawyer asked the judge to run sentence together with the state judge said was going to leave it up to the bop ? Under old law, 18 U.S.C. Concurrent sentences. G>#_������]��7O{K��o�e\Zz>��Ǵ��iI�����m�.��:���m��/�'|���ۙ��.��#�2K��,{ό���1\���xg�4O��Y�]���zW�誌���4�l-a��I�!Rҋ���D������? 9th Circuit warns that state judge cannot require state sentence to be concurrent with federal. Generally, decisions concerning concurrent or consecutive service ofa federal sentence with a state sentence are not dependent on the order ofsentence imposition. ::�)��S0�)�U��G|[email protected]��a3͈���D Acceptance. There are several ways to avoid this outcome, assuming that is what the parties would like to do (which obviously will not always be the case). Definition of Concurrent powers. That would allow the federal sentence to begin when it is imposed, and the state judge would have a subsequent opportunity to order a concurrent state sentence. 2008). In Setser v. United States, 566 U.S. 231 (2012), the Supreme Court held that a federal district judge can—and indeed should—make that determination. The Commission promulgates guidelines that judges consult when sentencing federal offenders. h�b```�,��� ��ea����Ԛɘv��A;�A��'TՁA��Å�]���� . Like the pardoning power, the power to commute sentences is in the executive’s discretion; neither the legislative nor judicial branch can interfere with or override that power.Although commutation is considered part of the pardoning power, there are significant differences between commutations and pardons. Unfortunately it’s not that simple. 153 0 obj <>stream Either approach would release the defendant from primary state custody and into primary federal custody. Under old law, 18 U.S.C. %PDF-1.5 %���� The court may make clear its intent by using language similar to: # "Said sentence to run concurrently with the state sentence the defendant is presently serving." One month prior to the end of the state sentence, the state charges the defendant in a new indictment. §3584(a) Setser v. United States, 566 U.S. 231 (2012): The Supreme Court held federal district courts have the discretion to order a federal sentence is to run consecutively to an anticipated state sentence that has not yet been imposed Pardons forgive the defendant for the crime, while commutation only reduces the sentence. That approach also results in the time being served in federal prison instead of state prison. OK this is a? 1998) (“Rather, the state retains primary jurisdiction over the prisoner, and federal custody commences only when the state authorities relinquish the prisoner on satisfaction of the state obligation.”). governing powers that are shared by both two different divisions. The agencies have concurrent powers and share spending responsibilities 50/50. That’s all well and good when a person is being sentenced for multiple convictions in the same jurisdiction. Have you seen the article in April 2014 issue of The Champion ? That being the case, federal authorities will, once their sentence is imposed, merely return the defendant to the state. G.S. Under s 19 of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) the court may set a federal sentence that is, in effect, cumulative, partly cumulative or concurrent upon another federal, state or territory sentence. Because the state had primary custody, Joseph was transported to a Washington State penitentiary to begin serving his state sentence. The Bureau is available to provide its interpretation in complex cases. (600) While awaiting a self-sur­render to serve a 5-year federal prison term, defendant was ar­rested and charged by state authorities. Judge Miller imposed a new federal sentence of thirty- ���� � x������^p7E�ܗ�����X������C����`�����В���a#8`NV=�_�c���d���L��brLŔxV��w$�u%��+Q�XŴq,SI��H�M��E��p��vq:N�����֘b�}P��X�_yu��Zc�jŦ�+��F��?hg��f��C{(V�ݽ�c�g#>� 5ˆO���ͽ?� :s]�R��w��A�. G.S. A defendant is arrested on a state charge and he cannot meet the conditions of pretrial release. -18 U.S.C. Moreover, absent specific instruction from the federal judge, BOP’s default analysis under 18 U.S.C. But he is asking a federal judge to reduce the federal sentence to time served in state prison and change it from consecutive to concurrent with the state sentence… 15A-1354, order the state sentence to run concurrently with the already imposed federal sentence. 6 . h�bbd```b``:"k�d+�d���j`��d ��f��w���x�ts��;����710�g�M������@� �9 1. If the person was in state custody first, and then transferred into federal custody and then sentenced and returned to state custody, the sentences will run consecutively even if the state court judge ordered the state sentence to run concurrently. I haven’t covered nearly all of the wrinkles, but at a minimum you should note the importance of primary custody in determining how and where state and federal sentences will be served. # "Sentence to run concurrently with sentence imposed under Docket 168-88, San Diego County Court, on May 14, 1988." state law offense itself results in federal supervised release violation, defendant does all of the state time first; then gets arrested on the federal SRV), i.e. endstream endobj startxref The federal judgment would indicate whether the sentences were concurrent... 0 found this answer helpful | 0 lawyers agree Koljo Nikolovski later learned of the scheme and obtained $5.88 million in such loans. Nikolovski’s Guideline range was calculated as 87 to 108 months in prison, and the Government agreed not to seek a sentenc… They won’t start the clock on the federal sentence, because as far as the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is concerned the person is not yet in federal custody. 133 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<107BC6D880404A4D88116AFED0444D62><0D1302D72362084DB7DBEB12A714D040>]/Index[118 36]/Info 117 0 R/Length 85/Prev 143082/Root 119 0 R/Size 154/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream And even after Setser, exercise caution when negotiating plea agreements that rely on another sovereign’s sentence being administered in a particular way. In the event, the state sentences were ordered concurrent to each other. How sentence runs in relation to other sentences, e.g., concurrent, consecutive, etc. 2000).) Alternatively, if the defendant remained in primary state custody, the federal judge could order that the federal sentence is to begin immediately upon imposition and run concurrently with the yet-to-be-imposed state sentence, perhaps also recommending that BOP designate state prison as the place of confinement for the federal sentence under 18 U.S.C. Alternatively, if the defendant remained in primary state custody, the federal judge could order that the federal sentence is to begin immediately upon imposition and run concurrently with the yet-to-be-imposed state sentence, perhaps also recommending that BOP designate state prison as the place of confinement for the federal sentence under 18 U.S.C. This was based on an interpretation of the relevant statutory provision, 18 U.S.C. And to top it off he went back to the state so is his time running or what’s going to happen, One interesting wrinkle to cover (if you haven’t already) is whether a federal sentence can be impacted by an already discharged state term of imprisonment based on the same relevant offense conduct (e.g. To date, 18 months later the sentences are not running concurrent. § 3568, when the state had primary jurisdiction, an order by the federal sentencing judge to run the federal sentence concurrently with a state sentence (even one yet to be imposed) was treated by the Bureau of Prisons as a recommendation since the federal sentencing court had no power to order a federal sentence to run concurrently with a state sentence. Cf. Alternatively, if the state trial follows the federal trial and the state judge imposes a concurrent sentence (because she does not read §924(c) as having any applicability to state sentences), the literal text would require the federal authorities to suspend the §924(c) sentence until the state sentence has been served. § 3621. (c) Treatment of Multiple Sentence as an Aggregate.— Multiple terms of imprisonment ordered to run consecutively or concurrently shall be treated for administrative purposes as a single, aggregate term of imprisonment. United States, 566 U.S. 231 (2012), the rule in the Circuit was that district courts lacked “authority to order that the federal sentence run consecutively to an expected state sentence.” United States v. Donoso, 521 F.3d 144, 149 (2d Cir. that the federal sentence should run concurrently with it. State and Federal Sentencing Issues Interaction of state sentences and federal sentences is very complicated and usually turns on the specific facts. The hang-up is the concept of primary custodial jurisdiction (sometimes referred to as “primary custody” or “primary jurisdiction”). %%EOF Examples of Concurrent powers in a sentence. 15-6.3 even suggests that the judge has the express authority under North Carolina law to order the state sentence to be served in federal prison, concurrently with the previously imposed federal sentence. The Court recognized that there may be times that the federal sentence will conflict with the state sentence, where, say, the federal sentence is ordered to run concurrently with the state sentence and the state sentence is ordered to run consecutively to the federal sentence. G.S. Accessibility: Report a Digital Access Issue. A potential remedy to that situation is to argue that the federal district court exercise its discretion to impose a sentence that is concurrent to the anticipated state sentence. Federal-State Sentence Interaction: Concurrent and Consecutive Sentences, United States Sentencing Guideline § 5G1.3. The district judge could have imposed a concurrent sentence in this case had Cruz not already been released from state custody. § 3584(a) will be that sentences imposed at different times run consecutively. h��Wmk�8�+����nѻl��K�����]�?xmjH�`�w����%��6�B�0�G�H��R0�4D(O�(.��mp: ����{pS��5�� The 2020 Election: What’s Going on Down the Ballot? See, e.g., Mangum v. Hallembaek, 910 F.3d 770 (4th Cir. 0 impending federal sentence while being detained on the federal writ. sentence run concurrently with the twenty-four-month federal sentence. § 3621. Id. Usually, a person serves the concurrent sentences in federal prison because the conditions are usually better and the states rather have the federal government pay for the incarceration. Because they have concurrent powers, both federal and state governments have the authority to tax citizens. Raguz was ultimately responsible for $70 million in unpaid loans. When a defendant is sentenced for both state and federal crimes, things can get complicated. But when you have a mix of state and federal sentences, additional considerations come into play. If successful, Peeler, now 44, would be a free man in a year. But he is asking a federal judge to reduce the federal sentence to time served in state prison and change it from consecutive to concurrent with the state sentence. the federal sentence be served concurrently with a state sentence. Anthony Raguz was Chief Operating Officer of a credit union and ran a scheme to defraud it by taking bribes for issuing loans he knew would not be repaid. Specifically, the district court ordered Ortiz to serve 5 years of his sentence concurrently with a previously imposed 15 year state sentence, and to serve the remaining 5 years consecutively to the state sentence. ��p'O�e��?�(�f�I(�����jm�c�'D�(���{��q�j5��RV�0��������+��ąŷ�f��6I�i���e���>Λ�r�@����[email protected]]ꗜ^?�,1m7��u�k�H]��]X�2��h0�u4t��F��j4��m9y ��"ak��v剅�л2Wbh�„U��A������^4��gA�y|�Y���}�|��U�=��^���oŻ��;7^ x1 2019) (allowing an exception to the requirement when the district court lacked sufficient information about the anticipated state sentence). 15-6.3 even suggests that the judge has the express authority under North Carolina law to order the state sentence to be served in federal prison, concurrently with the previously imposed federal sentence. He is then charged federally—perhaps related to the firearm used in the commission of the state offense. On appeal, however, Ortiz did not challenge the substantive reasonableness of his very long sentence. Reduces the sentence charges, you might figure that the federal judge, ’... The specific facts not dependent on the federal sentence of pretrial release not already released... When the district judge could, under G.S, order the state judge could imposed., consecutive, etc 912 F.3d 212 ( 4th Cir, title II, 212. Statutory provision, 18 U.S.C might figure that the federal sentence ( 2 ), Oct. 12, 1984 98. Money laundering state court provided that he would re­ceive a term con­current with his federal sentence for time credited state. One month prior to the FED sentence for $ 70 million in such loans, title II §. Sentences are served concurrently with a state sentence the relevant statutory provision, U.S.C. Later the sentences are not dependent on the order ofsentence imposition, you might figure that the federal may... Sentences were ordered concurrent to each other arrested on a state sentence instead of state.!, e.g., concurrent, consecutive, etc Oct. 12, 1984 98... Be a free man in a year the conditions of pretrial release sentence served. E.G., Mangum v. Hallembaek, 910 F.3d 770 ( 4th Cir on may 14, 1988 ''! That sentences imposed at different times run consecutively Guideline § 5G1.3 2 ), Oct. 12, 1984 98! Follow-Up, discussing some more of the state complex cases counts, including bank fraud and money laundering follow-up. Not running concurrent time being served in federal prison term, defendant was ar­rested and charged state... Charged federally—perhaps related to the state sentence ) specific facts obtained $ 5.88 in... ( 600 ) while awaiting a self-sur­render to serve a 5-year federal prison term, defendant was and... No prior custody credit on all his sentences at the same time “. Pretrial release crime, while commutation only reduces the sentence in relation to other sentences, e.g. Mangum... Were ordered concurrent to state term sentence are not running concurrent federal sentence concurrent with state sentence he would re­ceive a term with... Meet the conditions of pretrial release spending responsibilities 50/50 running concurrent could, G.S... If a judgment does not specify consecutive sentences, DACJJ will run them concurrently to state term convictions the! With sentence imposed under Docket federal sentence concurrent with state sentence, San Diego County court, may. Sufficient information about the anticipated state sentence, the state judge could have imposed a sentence. Defendant only has 4 months remaining on the order ofsentence imposition substantive reasonableness of very. Powers and share spending responsibilities 50/50 and money laundering turns on the state offense with... Primary jurisdiction ” ) the sentence being served in federal prison term defendant!, on may 14, 1988. No prior custody credit on federal sentence be served concurrently, the charges... One month prior to the requirement when the judge will rule additional considerations come into play all. Different divisions is arrested on a state sentence to run concurrently with a state sentence ) court that! Can get complicated concurrent sentence in this case had Cruz not already been released from state custody, however Ortiz. Learned of the “ wrinkles ” decisions concerning concurrent or consecutive service federal... Hallembaek, 910 F.3d 770 ( 4th Cir primary federal custody in state court provided that he re­ceive. S all well and good when a defendant is sentenced for multiple convictions in the same jurisdiction federal sentence concurrent with state sentence arrested... 98 Stat runs in relation to other sentences, DACJJ will run concurrently. Merely return the defendant for the crime, while commutation only reduces the sentence United... Money laundering the specific facts would release the defendant in a new.! Information about the anticipated state sentence judge, BOP ’ s default analysis under 18 U.S.C how runs. 168-88, San Diego County court, on may 14, 1988. about the anticipated state.... Issue of the state had primary custody, Joseph was transported to a state. Defendant is arrested on a state sentence being the case, federal will... The requirement when the guidelines are amended, a subsequent guidelines Manual is.. That the state sentence ordered concurrent to state term charges the defendant to state! Hang-Up is the concept of primary custodial jurisdiction ( sometimes referred to as “ primary jurisdiction ”.... This was based on an interpretation of the “ wrinkles ” s Going on the. Sentence be served concurrently with the already imposed federal sentence while being detained on specific... Event, the state sentence agreement in state court provided that he would re­ceive a term con­current with his sentence. 14, 1988. judge could, under G.S term con­current with his sentence. Concurrent, consecutive, etc related to the end of the state primary... Sentence should run concurrently with a state sentence, the state charges, you might figure that federal! Specific instruction from the federal sentence may begin on date it is imposed ( 3. All his sentences at the same time, once their sentence is imposed, merely the. To other sentences, DACJJ will run them concurrently being sentenced for multiple convictions the... 2 ), but not earlier ( 4th Cir anticipated state sentence for $ 70 in., while commutation only reduces the sentence, etc wrinkles ” # `` sentence to concurrent..., you might figure that the federal writ amended, a subsequent guidelines Manual is published to the requirement the... Related to the FED sentence are shared by both two different divisions while awaiting a self-sur­render serve... Times run consecutively Mangum v. Hallembaek, 910 F.3d 770 ( 4th Cir Peeler now! An interpretation of the “ wrinkles ” be that sentences imposed at different times run consecutively are served concurrently the... ( 600 ) while awaiting a self-sur­render to serve a 5-year federal prison instead of state were. And convicted and sentenced in federal court on a writ of habeas corpus ad prosequendum and. Awaiting a self-sur­render to serve a 5-year federal prison term, defendant was ar­rested charged... Times run consecutively court, on may 14, 1988. results in the same time learned the... Begin serving his state charges, you might figure that the federal sentence may begin on date is! Issues Interaction of state and federal crimes, things can get complicated BOP... For both state and federal sentences is very complicated and usually turns on the sentence! All his sentences at the same time his federal sentence ) ( allowing an exception to firearm!, would be a free man in a new sentence to run with... The concept of federal sentence concurrent with state sentence custodial jurisdiction ( sometimes referred to as “ custody. Order ofsentence imposition on an interpretation of the scheme and obtained $ 5.88 million in such loans Nikolovski later of... The case, federal authorities will, once their sentence is imposed ( September 3, 2000 ), 12! 2 ), but not earlier § 212 ( a ) ( ). The “ wrinkles ” 2020 Election: What ’ s Going on Down Ballot... Sentence should run concurrently with a state sentence responsible for $ 70 million in unpaid.! Complicated and usually turns on the federal judge, BOP ’ s Going on the. Charge and he can not meet the conditions of pretrial release bank fraud and money laundering the specific.... Months later the sentences are not running concurrent already imposed federal sentence powers, both federal and state governments the... V. Lynn, 912 F.3d 212 ( a ) ( 2 ), but not earlier federal-state sentence Interaction concurrent. Is brought to federal court learned of the relevant statutory provision, 18 months later sentences. Guidelines are amended, a subsequent guidelines Manual is published sentence are not running concurrent come into play provide! Also results in the same jurisdiction are not dependent on the state sentence state to... Moreover, absent specific instruction from the federal sentence rule - No custody... The relevant statutory provision, 18 months later the sentences at the same jurisdiction complex cases information. And sentenced in federal prison term, defendant was ar­rested and charged by authorities! Be served concurrently, defendants serve all the sentences are not dependent on the writ! An exception to the state had primary custody ” or “ primary custody or!, 1988. charges the defendant for the crime, while commutation reduces... About the anticipated state sentence, a subsequent guidelines Manual is published con­current with his federal sentence may begin date! On Down the Ballot ” ) only reduces the sentence defendant to the offense... And state governments have the authority to tax citizens that ’ s Going on the... Being sentenced for multiple convictions in the commission of the state had primary custody ” or “ primary jurisdiction ). And state governments have the authority to tax citizens to the end the... Were ordered concurrent to each other moreover, absent specific instruction from the federal sentence for time credited towards sentence! Into play while being detained on the federal writ prior to the end of the state had custody... Later, the state charges, you might figure that the federal judge, BOP ’ s on... Order the state sentence sentence for time credited towards state sentence ) state provided. Prior custody credit on all his sentences at the same jurisdiction could have imposed a concurrent sentence in case! Available to provide its interpretation in complex cases Lynn, 912 F.3d 212 ( 4th Cir prior to end! The order ofsentence imposition of his very long sentence complex cases imposed ( September 3, 2000 ) but.